Here is how I went about contructing my basement bowling alley. I'm sure there are better ways of doing so, as I am no engineer or even good at carpentry for that matter. Despite those facts, I got good results from doing it this way with mininal cost.
1. Bowling Alley Deck Frame Build

I opted to build my lane to 30' long. My basemet is 40' max, so this left some space behind the pins for a 'pit' area as well as a decent amount of room to stand in the 'approch' area from which to bowl from. There's certainly no room for a 'real' approach where the bowler could take the usual steps prior to delivering the ball. In my scenario, one would simply roll the ball similar to the way one would when playing 'skee-ball'.

Standard "deck screws" seem to work best for assembly. Theyre inexpensive and are available in the long lengths needed to rigidly fasten the bowling alley deckframe together.
2. Bowling Alley Deck Frame Completion

Candlepin bowling alleys are between 41-42" wide not including the gutters. I opted to build mine at the low end of the tolerance and contructed it to 41" wide. Materials involved are nothing but basic 2x4 construction lumber similar to what is used as wall studs. I found it very good practice to check every board before buying it for straightness (duh). These initial stages are critical to getting the final results desireable and ensuring the lane will be fun to bowl on.

Also as most basements tend to be slightly humid, I though that unrolling a vinyl dropcloth beneath the entire length of the alley would help to stave off warping or help keep moisture from building up underneath the deck.
3. Deck Baseboard Installation

Part of the key to success here is ensuring the deck flexes as little as possible. I chose to use 3/4" thick plywood for the top surface. It's important to not skimp on this part or the impact of the bowling balls and pins will cause the deck to flex and everything to bounce, detracting from any sort of genuine feel to the game. Also be sure to make the alley crossmembers extend far enough out from the deck so there is something left to attach gutters to. Keeping it simple, rectangular shaped gutters are easy to build this way.